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An effective method of dealing with these effects, both in one-dimensional and two-dimensional cases, is to use the operation of padding zeros to a signal. Significant disadvantages of this approach are large required memory size and the need for the great number of unproductive computations with zero elements. There are three options for extending the reference area of a 2-D signal with zeros: zero-padding of the vertical, horizontal, and both vertical and horizontal periods of the two-dimensional signal. It is proved that each of the three options for padding zeros to the reference area samples generates its own set of Fourier bases with variable parameters. The sets were called by the author as Fourier bases of the first, second and third type. The foundations of the theory of two-dimensional signal processing in the spatial-frequency domain in Fourier bases with variable parameters of the first type have been developed. Bases of two-dimensional exponential functions with a variable parameter of the first kind (2-D DEF-VP-1) are introduced and investigated. The basic properties of two-dimensional exponential functions of the first type with a variable parameter are proved. Algebraic and matrix forms of direct and inverse two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform with a variable parameter of the 1st type - 2-D DFT-VP-1 are introduced. The generalization of the 2-D signal periodicity is carried out in the form of the parametric 2-D signal periodicity. The generalization of the cyclic shift of a 2-D signal in the form of a parametric cyclic shift of a 2-D signal is carried out. The main properties of the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform with a variable parameter of the first type are investigated. 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[Determination of anharmonic discrete signal envelope based on the Hilbert transform in the frequency domain]. Intelligent systems in production, 2018, vol.16, no.1, pp.33-40 (in Russ.). 20. Ponomareva N.V, Ponomareva V.YU. [Localization of spectral peaks by the parametric discrete Fourier transform method]. Intellectual systems in production, 2016, no. 2 (29), pp.15-18 (in Russ.). 21. Ponomareva N.V. [Pre-processing of discrete signals in spectral analysis in the computer mathematics system MATLAB]. Intellectual systems in production, 2016, no. 4 (31). pp. 32-34 (in Russ.). 22. Ponomareva O.V., Ponomareva N.V, Ponomareva V.YU. [The use of time windows in the vector spectral analysis of discrete signals]. Intelligent systems in production. 2016, no.4 (31), pp.19-21 (in Russ.). 23. Ponomarev V.A., Ponomareva O.V., Ponomareva N.V. [Discrete time inversion and parametric discrete Fourier transform]. Intellectual systems in production, 2016, no. 4 (31). pp.25-31 (in Russ.). 24. 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[Measurement of the current energy Fourier spectrum of complex and real discrete signals at finite intervals]. Intellectual systems in production, 2013, no.2 (22), pp. 149-157 (in Russ.). 29. Ponomarev V.A., Ponomareva O.V., Ponomarev A.V. [Generalized functional-structural model of information-measuring systems for functional diagnostics of objects]. Modern information and electronic technologies, 2013, vol. 1, no. 14. – pp. 115 - 118. 30. Ponomareva O.V., Ponomareva N.V. [Filter modification based on frequency sampling by generalizing the difference equation of a non-recursive comb filter]. Modern information and electronic technologies, 2013, vol. 1, no. 14. – pp. 244 - 247. 31. Ponomareva O.V. [Horizontal sliding spatial-frequency processing of two-dimensional discrete real signals]. Intelligent systems in production. 2019, vol. 17, no.1, pp.78-87 (in Russ.). 32. Ponomarev A. V. [Two-dimensional signal processing in discrete Fourier bases]. 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-mail:m.g.bakulin@gmail.com eKreyndelin V.B., Moscow, MTUCI, -mail:vitkrend@gmail.comShumov A.P., Ryazan, RGRTU, e-mail: magnit2250@mail.ru
Multiple access is one of the fundamental principles of wireless communication systems. It has a significant impact on the nature of the use of the available frequency spectrum, throughput, delay in communication systems. For cellular systems, multiple access is a technology by which multiple users use shared radio resources to establish links with a base station (BS). Some of the widely used multiple access technologies in previous generations of cellular networks include time division multiple access (TDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA), code division multiple access (CDMA). These technologies refer to the so-called orthogonal multiple access (OMA). In OMA, user access is orthogonal, and ideally, users should not interfere with each other when sharing a communication channel. The key idea behind NOMA is to remove the orthogonality condition when serving multiple users. The NOMA principle is a general concept, and several recently proposed 5G multiple access schemes can be considered as its special cases. This article discusses the basics of power-domain NOMA - NOMA in the power domain - with one or many antennas under up and down line conditions, discusses the basic principles of code-domain NOMA - NOMA in the code domain. The article discusses various resource allocation technologies, such as pairing users and placing capacities for systems with NOMA, discusses the main forms of cooperative NOMA and its variants.
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The calculation formulas for calculating the time of entering into synchronism when used in relation to the correlation functions of the CP are given, while the energy values of the signal – noise ratio (SNR) for the correlation functions of the CP are proposed to be replaced by the ratio of the Merit- factor, which in this paper corresponds to the value of the ratio of the maximum value of the correlation function of the CP to the modulus of the average value of the side lobes (MFs). In the calculations of the time of entering into synchronism, we used calculations of the probability of correct detection with the values of the thresholds obtained from the expression of the probability of a false alarm equal to F=10 Since the MF The results of calculations for the specified false alarm probabilities for the ideal (without interference) and Rayleigh channel with the addition of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at the values of the SNR=10dB, 0dB ratios are shown in tables and graphs for the case of averaging the number of OFDM symbols over the duration of half an LTE frame (70 symbols) of the downlink (DL) direction in the band of the central 72 subcarriers of the frame for OFDM symbols that do not contain service information of the base cellular station. Mathematical modeling of CP correlation functions was performed in the MATLAB operating environment for sequences with the number of elements N=9,11,13,17,19,31,37.
2. Zhuravlev, V. I. Search and synchronization in wideband systems, – M.:Radio and communication, 1986.- 240S. 3. ETSI TS 136 211 V10.0.0 (2011-01). Technical Specification. - European Telecommunications Standards Institute, 2011-104c. - LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation (3GPP TS 36.211 version 10.0.0 Release 10) 4. Theoretical foundations of radar. Ed. J. D. Shirman Textbook for universities, Moscow, Sov. Radio, 1970, 560 p. 5. The error function .[Electronic resource] - access Mode: https://abakbot.ru/online-16/451-erf (accessed: 10.02.2020). 5. The error function .[Electronic resource] - access Mode: https://abakbot.ru/online-16/451-erf (accessed: 10.02.2020). 6. Khasanov M. S., Kurganov V. V. Methods for determining the coefficients of a quasi-optimal FIR filter for convolution of a pseudo-random binary sequence. // All-Russian information resource. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: http://www.mes-conference.ru/data/year2014/pdf/D145.pdf (accessed: 31.10.2018). 7. Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS) .[Electronic resource] – Mode of access: http://anisimoff.org/lte/lte_synch.html (date accessed: 10.02.2019).
Two message elements (a pair of elements) are transmitted simultaneously using orthogonal signals of duration T. Pairs of message elements are received for transmission with an interval of T / 2. Thus, the signals corresponding to the sequentially transmitted pairs of elements partially overlap in time by the amount of T / 2. As a result, there is intersymbol interference at reception. The frequency band in which 99% of the signal power is concentrated, 2.36/T, the specific cost of the band is 0.59, the peak factor is 2. For comparison, with minimum shift modulation (MSK), the frequency band is 1.18/T, the specific cost of the band is 1.18, the peak factor is 1.41. Thus, the transmission method under consideration has twice the unit cost, but 1.41 times the peak factor. When transmitting in the high-frequency range, it is advisable to form and process the transmitted signal using a complex envelope. The reception uses the Viterbi algorithm, which implements the maximum likelihood rule and minimizes the probability of error in intersymbol interference. The noise immunity of the considered transmission method is somewhat worse than with MSK.
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To exclude blanking of useful signals from targets with low radial velocities for signals received at two carrier frequencies, was added the formation of a second signal feature in the form of a module of the inter-frequency correlation coefficient, which is used to estimate the longitudinal size of the classified objects and which, if not exceeding the threshold, is classified as an interfering signal based on the correlation feature. In this case, the speed and correlation coefficient are assigned logical units, the coincidence of which is recorded in each element of the range using the logical function "And", on the basis of which a decision is made to blank the reflected signal in this element of the range [3]. Although this method allows using speed and correlation features to increase the efficiency of blocking interfering reflections, however, not taking into account the power of the reflected signal can lead to erroneous classification, when signals from a target with a small radial speed and a large size can be taken as interfering reflections, for example, an airliner flying from an angle relative to the radar. In order to exclude blanking of useful signals from targets with small radial velocities and a large longitudinal size, it is proposed to form a third signal feature in the form of an estimated power of the received signals (an effective scattering surface), which is compared with the threshold in each element of the rang, if this threshold is not exceeded. And only after combining the correlation, speed, and the effective scattering surface, if they coincide, a decision is made to blank the reflected signal in this range element [4]. This article is devoted to this method.
2. Bartenev V. G., Galkin R. E. Synthesis of a digital two-frequency classifier of discrete noise on a speed basis.- Proceedings of the 16th International Conference "Digital Signal Processing and its Application DSPA-2014", Moscow, Vol. - 1, pp. 343-347, 2014. 3. Bartenev V. G. Method of classification and blanking of discrete noise. Patent No. 2599870 on application No. 2015128907 registered in the State Register of the Russian Federation on 23.09.2016. 4. Bartenev V. G. Method of classification and blanking of discrete interference. Patent No. 2710894 under application No. 2018134712 was registered in the State Register of the Russian Federation on 14.01.2020.
The article describes an experimentally tested method for increasing the sensitivity of video cameras, based on a method for increasing the sensitivity and frame rate using the procedure for binning adjacent pixels of the photodetector matrix for a sequence of video frames, followed by restoring the spatial resolution. In the proposed method, the sequence of video frames subjected to binning is shifted by at least one pixel of the radiation receiver matrix diagonally so that a space-time grid with a staggered arrangement of samples in the adjacent video frames is formed. This allows us to restore the spatial resolution of video frames using a three-dimensional interpolation spatiotemporal low-pass filter with the passband of the three-dimensional spatial-frequency response in the form of an octahedron. The synthesized three-dimensional interpolation spatiotemporal low-pass filter is a cascade connection of a three-dimensional, two-dimensional, and one-dimensional recursively-non-recursive blocks. Experiments with Foucault calibration targets have shown that when using 2×2 binning, the original resolution is restored by more than 80%, and when using 4×4 binning – by at least 40%. The proposed method for increasing the sensitivity of video cameras can be used in various fields of image processing, including video surveillance systems, technical vision, medicine, non-destructive testing, etc. 2. Cyculin A.K., Zubakin I.A., Levko G.V., Morozov A.V. Izmerenie kachestva videoinformacii formiruemo’ telekamero’ (Measuring the quality of video information generated by a TV camera) // Voprosy radioelektroniki. Tekhnika televidenija. 2016, no. 4, pp. 26–32. 3. Binning // Quantum Imaging. 2018. URL: https://quantumimaging.com/binning/. 4. Binning // Specteletekhnika. 2004. URL: http://www.sptt.ru/sptt/docs.php?l=1&part=3. 5. Drynkin V.N., Tsareva T.I. Metod povysheniya razreshajushe’ sposobnosti isobrageni’ (Image resolution enhancement method) // Cifrovaja obrabotka signalov (Digital signal processing). 2014, no. 3, pp. 9–14. 6. Drynkin V.N., Tsareva T.I., Pavlov. U.V. Sposob povysheniya chuvstvitel’nosti i chastoty kadrov videokamer (A method for increasing the sensitivity and frame rate of video cameras). Zajavka na izobretenie No 2020139588 (W20073570) ot 02.12.2020. H04N 5/347. /Zajavitel’ - FGUP GosNIIAS. 7. Donoho D.L. Compressed sensing // IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory. 2006. V. 52, pp. 1289–1306. 8. Granichin O.N., Pavlenko D.V. Randomizacija poluchenija dannyh i 9. Drynkin V.N., Nabokov S.A., Tsareva T.I. Non-Orthogonal Sampling as the Basis for Video Data Compression and Reconstruction // Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences International. 2019. Vol. 58, no.3, pp. 115-122. DOI: 10.1134/S1064230719030080. 10. Drynkin V.N., Nabokov S.A., Tsareva T.I. Video images compression and restoration methods based on optimal sampling // Computer Optics. 2019. Vol. 43, Issue 1, pp. 115-122. DOI: 10.18287/2412-6179-2019-43-1-115-122. 11. Drynkin V.N. Razrabotka i primenenie mnogomernyh cifrovyh filtrov (Designing and application of multidimensional digital filters). M.: FGUP GosNIIAS, 2016. 180 p. 12. Opisanie kamery BOBCAT ICL-B2520. URL: https://cameralab.ru/sites/default/files/icl-b2520.pdf. 13. Bondarenko A.V., Jadchuk K.A., Bondarenko M.A., Drynkin V.N. Apparatno-programmnaja realizacija algoritma povyshenija razreshayushe’ sposobnosti cifrovyh vidokamer (Hardware and software implementation of the algorithm for increasing the resolution of digital video cameras) // Tezisy dokladov TVCS-2017. M., march 14-16, pp. 38-39. |