|Digital Signal Processing||
Method of coding of message sources
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Mathematical model of cognitive permutation decoder
Keywords: error-correction coding, permutation decoding (PD), cognitive adaptation, cognitive map, a cyclic permutation, lexicographical classification, fast matrix conversion, the soft decision symbols, the energy gain from coding (EGC).
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Automatic modulation recognition is an important task on identification of different kinds of signals. In most cases, the process of signal detection and parameter recognition is held in terms of lacking priory data on functioning device capabilities. In such terms automatic signal recognition of radio source allows us to classify: transmitting device type, connection type and connection system in general. In the meantime, there are lots of ways and algorithms of digital signal identification, each appropriate for solving different tasks.
Special attention is paid to works devoted to modern PSK modulation recognition methods. Algorithms highlighted in the works do not count features of shift-keyed phase signals. Proposed algorithm allows to automatically classify signal modulation type with unknown parameters (amplitude, signal spectrum band, instant phase, rate etc…) in terms of receiving signal with PSK modulation type.
Algorithm of PSK signal modulation recognition based on even degrees structure analysis, software module in math modeling space (MATLAB), practical research on noise resilience of proposed algorithm,, in which probability of correct classification is achieved with SNR > 6dB for QPSK and with SNR>7dB with DQPSK and OQPSK, and SNR>16dB for 8PSK and D8PSK signals. BPSK modulation signals are classified correctly in the SNR range >0dB.
2. Chunlei Zhang, Hui Wu, Huanyu Ning. A Novel Digital Signal Modulation Mode Recognition Algorithm. School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, China. // Sensors & Transducers, Vol. 178, Issue 9, September 2014, pp. 194 – 198.
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It is noted that dependence of rated differential frequencies on rated time within the range of frequency modulation strongly changes at change of equivalent dielectric permeability, diameter of a wave guide and size of range of reorganization of frequency at frequency modulation. It is offered to estimate the current value of equivalent permeability, by comparison of such dependence with the reference dependence calculated at in advance preset value of reference dielectric permeability. The variation of reference dielectric permeability allows to pick up its such value at which both schedules coincide.
Practical realization of the offered method is possible with use of digital processing of signals. At the same time the initial massif of counting of a signal of differential frequency breaks into a number of podmassiv, in each of which also its comparison with the same number of the reference values received at a preset value of reference dielectric permeability is made calculations of average differential frequency. The variation of value of reference dielectric permeability allows to find its such value at which there is minimum a sum of modules of differences of the received values of rated frequencies.
It is offered limit simplification of this method when all massif of initial counting breaks into two podmassiv and on the average rated frequencies found for them assessment of equivalent dielectric permeability is calculated. For such calculation analytical expression is received. This expression is a basis for adaptation of the waveguide level gage to the changing value of equivalent dielectric permeability. The procedure of adaptation is iterative.
The received value of dielectric permeability is used at final assessment of distance from the level gage to liquid level. For such assessment expressions for the modified integrally discrete transformation of Fourier, considering dispersive properties of a wave guide and size of equivalent permeability are received.
Assessment of sensitivity of the offered method to an error of assessment of frequency and influence of noise is executed.
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5. Davydochkin V.M., Davydochkina S.V., Ezerski V.V. Snigenie metodicheskoi i shumovoi pogreinostei v zadache ocenki chastoti otrezka garmonicheskogo signala (Decrease in methodical and noise errors in a problem of assessment of frequency of a piece of a harmonious signal) // Radiotehnika, 2015, no. 11, pp. 66 – 71.
6. Davydochkin V.M., Ezerski V.V. Vlianie pomeh na pogreshnost radiolokacionnih urovnemerov s chastotnoi moduliaciei (Influence of hindrances on an error of radar level gages with frequency modulation) // Uspehi sovremennoj radiojelektroniki, M.: Radiotehnika. 2014, no.10, pp. 30 – 37.
Based on the calculation of the likelihood ratio and the subsequent statistical averaging of the optimal processing algorithm, principles for constructing systems for the adaptive detection of group multi-frequency signals are proposed, and algorithms for group and sliding signal processing with clutter are presented.
Due to the difference in Doppler phase shifts in the processed groups, the signal from a moving target falls into different Doppler channels of each of the coherent accumulators, which excludes the combination of output values of the accumulators. Overcoming the a priori uncertainty of the Doppler phase shifts of the signal is achieved by averaging the processing algorithm according to these parameters.
The resulting algorithm determines the structure of the detection system, invariant to the Doppler phase shifts of the groups of the reflected multi-frequency signal. In this case, the inter-period processing of each group of samples is combined, i.e., the group of samples and the subsequent incoherent summation of the results of matrix filtering fall into adaptive coherent matrix filtering. Processing is completed by summing the results of separate processing of groups of samples.
A block diagram of the system for adaptive detection of a group multifrequency signal against a background of clutter is proposed. In the system, the clutter rejection is performed separately for each group of coherent pulses with a known arrival time corresponding to the tuning of the carrier frequency of the transmitter. Carrier frequency tuning in combination with adaptive group processing of incoming samples allows to significantly increase the detection efficiency of group multifrequency signals at high detection probabilities.
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Among the existing UAV autonomous navigation problem solutions the particular interest are those that are based on the comparison of the altitude profile estimating with using the radio altimeter with a digital terrain map wrote down in the UAV onboard memory. First of all, the interest is due to the possibility of obtaining high-precision estimates of the UAV's own coordinates in a wide range of flight heights, regardless of the natural surface illumination state and weather conditions at the correction sector.
As a rule the UAVs’ radio altimeters antennas are characterized by small sizes and wide pattern as a consequence because of their weight and size restrictions. This results in terrain contour matching (with the sufficient sector length to compare it with a digital map of the area) is time consuming – tens of seconds or more.
At the same time, broadband signal using combined with the methods of synthetic aperture can quite improve the resolution of radio altimeters and use them as terrain contour matching equipment with detail, providing a significant increase in the accuracy and efficiency of determining the UAV's own coordinates by comparing the measured altitude estimates with a digital map of the terrain.
The article reveals the algorithm of detail terrain contour matching for airborne broadband radio altimeters. It shows the results of experimental test of the algorithm with data obtained using a small-sized C-band radar. Also it was found, that in addition to the terrain contour estimation, the problem of classification the probed surface can be solved. It makes it possible to determine the UAV’s own coordinates using data not only the surface heights at the correction sector, but also semantic information included with the structure of digital terrain maps.
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The analysis of trigonometric interpolation errors in case when Dirichlet conditions are not satisfied was produced. Formulas for estimating of the mean square error of trigonometric interpo-lation are obtained. The mean square error of trigonometric interpolation for finite-lengrth periodic discrete-time signal is calculated. The results are obtained for case when interpolation time interval contains non-integer number of the signal periods. It is proved that, contrary to popular opinion, tri-gonometric interpolation error is not equal to zero even if the number of samples tends to infinity, but it tends to some value which depends on the parameter, one that is a product of signal duration and frequency of the recovered signal. Analytical expressions for estimation of the lower bound on mean square error for periodic finite-length discrete-time signal in case of different signal duration and signal frequency are obtained.
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The solution of the first problem is aimed at eliminating the effects of static interference (such as fog, smoke, smog, etc.), leading to a decrease in the range of visibility in video images and wor-sening the distinguishability of objects. In such conditions, to improve the quality of video images, it is advisable to increase the contrast. A modified CLAHE algorithm is proposed, the use of which leads to an improvement in processed images quality indexes in comparison with known algorithms: the quality of edges increases by 2 times, the standard error is reduced by 12 ... 16%, the improvement of the SSIM, PSNR, and Fast-FMI indices is 16 ... 18%, 5 ... 7% and 6 ... 18%, re-spectively, in comparison with known methods.
During fusion, images coming from video cameras of different ranges are combined into a single frame containing information about all objects that are distinguishable in the image of at least one channel. This allows video surveillance at any time of the day and further improve visibility under the influence of interfering factors. When choosing the appropriate algorithm, it is advisable to use an objective quality index of multispectral image fusion, the values of which are most iden-tical to the results of a subjective quality assessment. For comparison with the results of subjective assessments, the most widely used objective assessments of multispectral image fusion quality were selected. From the analysis of the calculated values of accuracy, monotony and inconsistency of the considered quality indicators, it follows that when choosing the algorithm for combining multispec-tral images for video surveillance tasks, it is advisable to use a spatial feature and a modified index of structural similarity. For these quality indicators, the accuracy value is not more than 0.68, and monotonicity is not more than 0.5. Moreover, the level of inconsistency with the subjective assess-ment does not exceed 6%.
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