Digital Signal Processing

Scientific & Technical

“Digital Signal Processing” No. 3-2016

In the issue:

- power line detection on the images
- algorithms for detection and tracking of moving objects
- video matting with aid of reconstructed background
- quality assessment for video background reconstruction
- algorithm of objects thermal image formation
- blurring correction and defocus of satellite images
- system for spoofing detection and apparatus of video image
- smoothing filters for two-dimensional tomography
- adaptive image contrasting algorithm
- segmentation algorithms optimization
- filtration of digital images based on autoencoder

Power line detection on images using multi-agent approach
Alpatov B.A., e-mail:
Babayan P.V.,
Shubin N.J., e

Ryazan State Radio Engineering Unversity (RSREU), Ryazan

Keywords: power line detection, wire detection, Radon transform, multi-agent system, pattern recognition.

The problem of power line detection on the images is described in this paper. The algorithm based on Radon transform and multi-agent approach is suggested. The results of experimental research of the proposed algorithm are presented.

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are finding increasing opportunities for application in various areas of human activity. Absence on board crew has to be compensated with a high control automation degree, or remote control. However, despite the obvious imperfection of modern onboard control systems in comparison with man, even the operator is not always able to correctly and quickly assess the situation and make a decision about the maneuver. The probability of a UAVs collision with landscape elements, various structures or other air objects severely limits the application of UAVs in both civil and military fields. Power lines in the urban environment are Particular danger for UAVs. Wires detection and estimation of their parameters with the purpose of their presence informing either of the operator or the autopilot is an actual task. The method of detecting lines in an image proposed in this paper can be useful in a number of other applications of the theory of image processing, for example, in aerial photography, mapping and medicine.


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The complex of algorithms for detecting and tracking moving objects for on board technical vision system
A.B. Feldman, e-mail:
D.Y. Erokhin, e-mail:
Ryazan State Radio Engineering Unversity (RSREU), Ryazan

Keywords: : object detection, multiple object tracking, geometric transformations, technical vision system, Fourier transform.


In this paper we propose a set of algorithms for detection and tracking of moving objects observed from the aircraft. The set includes three main elements: an algorithm for estimation and compensation of geometric transformations of images, an algorithm for detection of moving objects, an algorithm to tracking of the detected objects and prediction their position.

For the estimation and compensation of geometrical transform we use algorithm based on phase correlation which is performed sequentially for determining rotation and shift of the current frame. This algorithm provides subpixel precision and acceptable speed of work.

After the evaluation and compensation of geometric transformations we perform the detection of moving objects. In the first step we estimate background and intensity of noise component of the observed image. The background and standard deviation of image noise are estimated by means of the exponential temporal filtering. In the second step, we subtract estimation of the background from current fame Using the estimated intensity of noise component and result of subtraction we make a decision on the presence of the object at the current pixel. The result of this step is a list of segments which size satisfies the intended size of moving objects.

At the final stage the correspondence between segments extracted from the current frame and tracked objects is established. This algorithm allows us to track the merger and separation of segments. Also in this work we use Kalman filter to predict the position of the moving object. Also this approach allows tracking the occlusion of the object.

Processing of frame with size 640x480 pixels on computer with Intel Core 2 Duo T7100 is carried out in real time with the frequency of 25 Hz. Experimental results show a high efficiency, low computational complexity of algorithms and the real-time capability of algorithms on the onboard technical vision system.

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The comparison of three performance indicators for the object position estimation algorithm

S.E. Korepanov, e-mail:
S.A. Smirnov, e-mail:
V.V. Strotov, e-mail:
Ryazan State Radio Engineering University (RSREU), Ryazan

Keywords: the object coordinate estimation algorithm, multiple template matching, SAD criterion, vision systems, performance indicators.

This work deals with the multiple reference area based object tracking algorithm. In this paper we understand object tracking as an estimation of object center coordinates and size in the every frame of image sequence. The proposed algorithm is used as part of the complex tracking algorithm that is designed for tracking the objects with the greatly size variations. This approach consists of using several object tracking algorithms and a set of rules to switch between them. Generally, in this case the minimal size of the object can be one pixel. The maximal size can be much more than the sensed image size.

The regular switching rule for the multiple reference area based object tracking algorithm takes in account the actual image size. However, in several cases the multiple reference area based algorithm may produce unacceptable errors after the switching. This is because we cannot guarantee the selection of the required number of the suitable reference areas on the object at the moment of switching. The existing switching rules do not take in account the object properties as brightness, contrast, spatial inhomogeneity.

The goal of this work is the comparison of the several performance indicators for proposed algorithm. The first indicator is based on reference area temporal variability. The second indicator is based on differential criterial function analysis in the nearest neighborhood of the global minimum. The third indicator is based on the image gradient analysis. The comparison criteria are the switching errors and the computation complexity.

The results experimental examinations of these indicators were presented. The results show that the performance indicator #3 based on image gradient analysis has the best precision and the least computation complexity. It can be used for multiple reference area based algorithm efficiency estimation.

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Video matting with aid of reconstructed background
Erofeev M.V., e-mail
Vatolin D.S., e-mail:

Keywords: matting, video processing, background reconstruction, background inpainting, matting Laplacian.

Formally, matting is a problem of image decomposition into foreground image, background image and foreground transparency map. This problem is extremely important for such video and image editing problems as: background replacement, applying transform to background or foreground only, stereoscopic image generation. In this paper we propose video matting method based on Learning Based Matting method. We describe modification to base method which enabled us to use reconstructed background sequence as additional input. We also propose iterative method for spatio-temporal transparency map smoothing. Finally, we show that proposed approach outperforms 11 image and video matting methods in objective comparison.

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Objective quality assessment methodology for video background reconstruction
Bokov A.A., e-mail:
Vatolin D.S., e-mail:

background reconstruction, video processing, objective quality assessment, quality benchmark.

In its general form, video background reconstruction is usually defined as a task of plausible video region reconstruction that is marked with an input mask. Object removal is a typical example of background reconstruction. Several new methods were introduced over the past few years; however, no standard benchmark has yet been established. In this work we propose an objective background reconstruction quality benchmark that consists of several metrics that we demonstrate to have higher correlation with perceptual quality compared to prior approaches. Perceptual background reconstruction quality is quantitatively evaluated based on pairwise comparison of background reconstruction methods performed by over 300 human subjects.

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Algorithm of objects thermal image formation in case of radiometric observation
V. K. Klochko, e-mail:
O. N. Makarova
S. M. Gudkov
A. A. Koshelev
The Ryazan State Radio Engineering University (RSREU), Russia, Ryazan

Keywords: radiometer, radiometric image, optical pattern, resolution capability.

Unlike the thermal imagers accepting the radiation of the land surface blanket, radiometers allow to fix the radio thermal radiation of the objects hidden under a blanket and are to a lesser extent subject to atmospheric influences. However spatial resolution capability of radiometric systems considerably concedes to resolution capability of thermal imager and optical systems. The purpose of operation is development of objects thermal image formation algorithm in the radar millimetric range of waves with spatial resolution of the optical image.

The objectives are achieved due to joint processing of radiometric and optical images. For this purpose the optical image is scaled for compliance radiometric image. Then the optical image is segmented on subareas, uniform in temperature. The received segments are transferred to the radiometric image matrix and each segment receives average temperature. Temperature is transferred to levels of chromaticity.

As a result the color objects image with spatial permission of the optical image and information on objects radio brightness temperature in the millimetric range of waves turns out. Results of full-scale tests of an algorithm are shown. On images the objects outlines and their temperature in color are accurately visible. The offered algorithm can be used in the existing radiometric object tracking systems. The thermal image with spatial resolution of the optical pattern is result of algorithm operation.

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Bistatic SAR baseline estimation by interferogram analysis
N.A. Egoshkin.,
V.A. Ushenkin., e-mail:

The Ryazan State Radio Engineering University (RSREU), Russia, Ryazan

Keywords: interferogram, SAR imaging, digital elevation model, phase unwrapping, interferometric baseline.

The problem of spaceborne InSAR baseline estimation by interferogram analysis is considered. Two main parameters, which depend on baseline and need to be estimated, are selected. They are multiplicative factor of phase dependence on relief height and multiplicative factor of flat relief phase. The algorithms of these parameters high-precision estimation, which don’t require interferogram phase unwrapping, are proposed.

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Satellite images blurring and defocus correction in the case of geometric distortion
N.A. Egoshkin, e-mail:
The Ryazan State Radio Engineering University (RSREU), Russia, Ryazan

Keywords: image improvement, defocus correction, blurring correction, remote sensing, point spread function, deconvolution.

The problem of speed blurring correction and defocus of satellite images from modern scanning sensors is considered. It is shown that it’s need to consider the geometric distortion of images. Speed blurring correction is based on the analytical description of the signal acquisition process. Defocus correction is based on point spread function evaluation using point objects and multi-channel images of the same area. Methods of wavelet transform are used to improve the correction quality and simplify configuration of the algorithms.


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Method and system for spoofing detection and apparatus of video image
I.N. Efimov, e-mail:
A.M. Kosolapov, e-mail:
N.A. Efimov, e-mail:
Samara State Technical University (SSTU), Russia, Samara

Keywords: method of authentication recognizable, dispersal of brightness, model of attacks, person’s biometric identification system.

A description, advantages and disadvantages of the original method of authentication recognizable object, based on the evaluation of repeated dispersal of brightness conjugate pixels of the object image. The model of attacks on a person's biometric identification system. Possible action by malicious deception systems by spoofing.

The present decision will find application in smaller IT environments (for example, in distance education) to detect spoofing attacks. Implement the described solution into existing control systems without specialized equipment. Necessary lighting device, fluorescent or infrared light.


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2. Efimov I.N., Kosolapov A.M. Classification of methods of authentication recognizable object // Collection of materials of internanative scientific-technical conference "Perspective Information Technologies". - Samara. - 2016. - pp.109-112.

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8. Efimov I.N., Kosolapov A.M. The method and the bump image recognizer face: Pat. RU 2518939 the applicant and the patentee VPO "Samara State University of Railway Transport". - ¹ 2013109943; appl. 05.03.2013; publ. 04.11.2014.

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Desing of projection data smoothing filters for two-dimensional tomography
A. V. Likhachov, e-mail:
Institute of Automation and Electrometry of the Siberian Branch of RAS (IAE SB RAS) Russia, Novosibirsk

Keywords: two-dimensional tomography, correlation function of noise, projection data smoothing.

The paper is devoted to the actual problem of suppression of noise in projection data used for topography reconstruction. Two-dimensional statement is considered in the ray approximation for parallel scanning scheme. In this case the function of interest is calculated from the formula of the Radon transform inversion. At its algorithmic implementation, one multiplies the spectrum of each projection by the module of frequency (so-called ramp-filtering procedure), thereby intensifying high frequency component of the noise. According to the theorem of Wiener-Khintchine, the power spectral density of a stationary random process is the Fourier transform of its correlation function. Thus the last has an effect on the result of the reconstruction. The author considered this issue earlier in [5], where it was found that among the considered data distortions having the same variance, the smallest value of the reconstruction error occurs for Gauss noise. Therefore, it is proposed to process the one-dimensional projections with the filter, providing output random component to be close to Gauss noise. This paper considers the following symmetric digital filter

where h is a sampling step of one-dimensional projections. The values of coefficients wj are determined from the condition of minimal discrepancy between the correlation function of the noise after filtering (1) and given function

Under the assumption that the projection data contain centered additive white noise, the following method to calculate has been developed. The equality (1) is sequentially multiplied by

for j = 0, 1, 2, …, n. The mathematical expectation is determined from left and right parts of each obtained equation. The values of the correlation function of the filtered noise resulting in the left parts are replaced with the values of the function G(ih). The obtained by such way system of equations is solved by enumerative technique with step dw on several variables, including w0, which values are taken from the interval [1/(2n+1)+dw; 1-dw]. The other variables are expressed through them by means of relatively simple relations. The solution satisfying to the condition wn wn-1 ≤ ... ≤ w1 < w0 is selected only. The obtained coefficients are multiplied by normalization constant to ensure the equality

In the present investigation the coefficients wj were calculated up to n=7 inclusive. In this case the enumerative technique was carried out on the values of two – four variables.

The numerical simulations were carried out. The length of the filter being equal to 2n+1 points was varied from five to fifteen. The following important result was obtained: the best reconstruction accuracy is achieved when the half-width of the Gauss curve used for the calculation of wj is equal to n steps of the grid. The computational experiment also shows that the proposed method improves the reconstruction quality, as compared with averaging or median on the same number of points. In particular, when the standard deviation of the noise is in the range from 5 to 15% of the projection data maximum value, it leads to error at 14÷15 times less than that the averaging gives (the length of the both filters is nine points).


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5. A. V. Likhachov, Yu. A. Shibaeva. Dependence of tomography reconstruction accuracy on noise correlation function involved in projection data // Digital signal processing. 2015. ¹ 2. pp. 18-34.

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9. A. V. Likhachov. Investigation of filtration in tomography algorithms // Avtometriya. vol. 43, ¹ 3. pp. 57-64.

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Adaptive image contrasting algorithm
S.S. Zavalishin, e-mail:
post-graduate student, RSREU, Ryazan

Keywords: image processing, document processing, contrast enhancement.

In this paper we propose an adaptive contrasting algorithm that exploits image structure. In contrast to existing methods, proposed one applies preliminary segmentation in order to determine contrast curves for each image area independently, which make it possible to take into account underexposed and overexposed areas. Smooth contrast transitions between nearby regions are provided using a special graph, which store algorithm parameters and adjust them.


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Increasing of the speed of the algorithm of fractal coding the halftone images
Zykov A. N., e-mail:

Keywords: image compression, fractal coding, image analysis, local binary patterns.

The offered to your attention work describes using Local Binary Pattern (LBP) in the task of fractal coding grayscale images. Based on local binary models, local binary patterns offer an effective way to analysis of the image and texture are its effective characteristic. This work is aimed at providing new ideas for reducing the time of fractal coding, in particular, using the classification of areas of an image on the basis of using operator the local binary patterns.


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5. Ahonen, T., Hadid, A., and Pietikainen, M. Face recognition with local binary patterns // Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, 2004, P. 469–481.

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Segmentation algorithms optimization with parallel computing techniques for image analysis systems
V.N. Stepanov, e-mail:
V.A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Moscow

Keywords: parallel computing, image processing, segmentation, GPGPU.

The paper presents an analysis of the General Processing on Graphical Processing Unit (GPGPU) in relation to image processing (segmentation) for analyzers of of medical and biological micro-objects. Adaptation of processing algorithms for parallelization and increase in execution speed are shown.

Studies presented show that the image processing is well parallelizable task.

Application of parallel algorithms using the GPGPU technology has allowed to accelerate the segmentation of images up to 25 times.

Using quick versions of functions with reduced accuracy does not affect the result of the segmentation - per-pixel comparison of segmented images showed that the result does not differ from that in the calculations with complete accuracy. Average acceleration in this case is 15.9%.

It is possible to increase the speed of calculations by 19% by applying of optimized color conversion algorithm.

Thus, parallel processing on the equipment used in this work (GPU NVidiaGeForce 970) allows for the segmentation of real images (usually no more than 1 MPix) at a rate close to real time. Latency is 170ms. This delay allows to eliminate the preview window when setting the segmentation thresholds, as previously, and output the result directly on the image.


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6. Popova G.M., Stepanov V.N., Druzhinin J.O. Interactive processing method for color images of the biological objects to get their semantic description // System analysis and management in biomedical systems. 2009. V. 8, ¹ 3. P. 741-746.

7. Popova G.M., Druzhinin J.O., Stepanov V.N., Diatchina I.F., Chazova N.L., Berschanskaia A.M., Melnikova N.V. Quantitative diagnosis of cancer of the prostate using a computer analyzer «Morpholog-Net» // System analysis and management in biomedical systems. 2006. V. 5, ¹ 4. P. 943-954.

Filtration of digital images based on autoencoder
Ipatov A.A., e-mail:
Volokhov V.A., e-mail:
Priorov A.L., , e-mail:
Apalkov I.V, e-mail:

Keywords: image filtering, machine learning, feedforward neural network, autoencoder.

This paper presents the implementation and study of noise reduction algorithm, based on autoencoder. Autoencoder is a kind of feedforward neural network, which is unsupervised learning algorithm. Standard dataset were used to test the proposed filtering algorithm. Additive white Gaussian noise is considered as a noise model. This paper presents the numerical and visual results, showing the main features of considered algorithm.


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