|Digital Signal Processing||
The comparative analysis of two methods combining signals in multichannel systems
In many radio systems are widely used multi-channel processing. In particular, when constructing a radar moving target detectors to improve their efficiency widely used the multichannel Doppler filters and notch multichannel filters. Thus, if in multi-channel Doppler filters the target signal can appear in one of the Doppler channels, in the multichannel notch filters the target may be in all the channels, since the velocity transparency zone of channels coincide. In this context, in multi-channel Doppler filter usually used the maximum selection in combining of channels. In the multi-notch filters it is preferable to implement minimum selection in combining of channels. It is interesting to compare the characteristics of these two methods of channels combining in relation to a multi-channel processing. Without loss of generality in solving the problem of comparing the effectiveness of two methods of channels combining the investigation was performed when type and efficiency of Doppler or multi notch filters in this study have been not considered. The attention was focused on different types of signal processing such as post detector integration, CFAR problem. It was assumed that at the input of minimum or maximum selection circuits in each channel was used in the quadrature square law detectors. And in each quadrature Gaussian noise acted with zero mean and unit variance. Noises in the channels were independent. Useful signals in all channels have the same random fluctuating amplitude and were also independent. It was shown, using analytical approach and MATLAB model verification of probability characteristics, that in the simple case the maximum detection method preferable. Using non coherent integration in each channel make both maximum and minimum methods equivalent. If after non coherent integration was used the adaptive constant false alarm rate device the minimum detection method become more affective for low detection probabilities.
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The research of the adaptive notch filter cross-links’ impact on probing signals with intra-modulation
Keywords: : adaptive filter, spectral analysis, super resolution, the Steiglitz-McBride algorithm, chirp-signal, correlated interference, cross-links, notch filter, MTI system, pulse-compression filter, Doppler filter, filter weights generation.
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Recently the interest to empirical modes decomposition has been growing. The authors apply such decomposition as a signal preliminary processing, which allows increasing the signal/interference ratio, simplifying the algorithm of parametrical analysis due to transformation of a complex task of evaluation of the parameters of p model order into simple tasks of evaluation of components of first and second order, significantly reducing the period of analysis.
The method proposed is based on suppression of high-frequency components at integration and on their accentuation at differentiation:
- to extract the modes in ascending order of their frequencies multiple integration of signal is executed in order to suppress high-frequency components, till the termination of altering of number of extrema, i.e. only one (of the lowest frequency) component remains; the modes are extracted from integrated sequences by differentiation, subtraction of extracted component from integrated sequences of lower order, repetition of the same actions with an already withdrawn low-frequency component with the sequences integrated, starting with the previous one; the components extracted from the integrated sequences are to be differentiated in accordance with Lanczos scheme as many times as the sequence has been integrated;
- to extract the modes in the descending order of their frequencies multiple differentiation is executed to accentuate high-frequency components, till the sequence with alternating extrema is extracted; the modes are extracted from differentiated sequences by integration, subtraction of the extracted component from differentiated sequences of lower-order, repetition of the same actions with an already withdrawn high-frequency component with differentiated sequences, starting with the previous one; the components extracted from the differentiated sequences are to be integrated with application of weighting as many times as the sequence has been differentiated.
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Optimize energy criterion of coherent signal detection system is based on the extreme properties of the characteristic (own) matrices of numbers, and probabilistic criteria - on numerical methods of nonlinear programming.
A two-stage procedure to optimize systems for detection of coherent signals based on the RF-MF combination. In the first stage on the energy or the probability criterion is optimized RF. The second step is optimized MF. In the case of a different weighting in the channels used analytical procedure optimization energy criterion of maximum ratio Rayleigh, which is an approximate version of optimization on probabilistic criterion, and in the case of the same weighting in the channels of the methods of nonlinear programming is the numerical solution of probabilistic criterion. Analysis of processing systems may also be carried out on the energy and probabilistic criterion.
For a small dynamic range for clutter detection systems fixed coherent structure signals a preference should be given to the method of optimization on probabilistic criterion. By increasing the dynamic range of a convergence of parameters and efficiency of systems in comparable cases, that in view of the facilities of the analytical solutions of the optimization problem, as well as more opportunities for implementation of adaptive algorithms indicates the usefulness of the method of optimization on energy criterion.
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The problem is connected with a priori unknown apparatus function (AF) of the radiometer. Such function (AF) characterizes influence of the directional pattern of the antenna, path of preprocessing of the radiometer and external factors on the required image of objects. In actual practice operation of the radiometer the value of AF will differ from its value measured in laboratory conditions owing to blurring of the AF form that also reduces efficiency of the radiometer.
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